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  1. Coffee reduces oxidation.Ā Studies included in the review showed people experiencing depression have elevated levels of oxidative stress indicators in their blood. Women exhibiting depression symptoms tended to have diets lower in antioxidant capacity. Coffee is the leading source of antioxidants in Americansā€™ diets.
  2. Coffee fights inflammation.Ā Depressed people tend to have higher blood levels of inflammation-related proteins than people who are not depressed, and suicidal ideation has also been associated with inflammation. Medications that are commonly used to treat depression lowers the blood concentrations of some inflammation indicators, raising the possibility that the therapeutic effects of these drugs might, in part, reflect their anti-inflammatory properties. Studies reviewed in the meta-analysis show coffeeā€™s anti-inflammatory properties are associated with decreased depression.
  3. Caffeine blocks mood-depressing chemicals in the brain.Ā Caffeine blocks receptors in the brain from binding with a chemical that causes fatigue and depressed mood. Studies in the review show that people who drink more coffee have higher adenosine concentration in their blood as the chemical has been blocked from binding with these receptors. Amongst those suffering from bipolar disorder, adenosine binding to neuroreceptors lowers adenosine concentration in the blood and is associated with more severe symptoms. Coffee is the primary source of caffeine in participantsā€™ diets in most large-scale studies.
  4. Coffeeā€™s impact on gut health promotes mental health.Ā Probiotics are microorganisms that improve gut health and decrease depression in randomized trials. Some components in coffee feed these microorganisms, enhancing the creation of fatty acids and neurotransmitters that confer mental health benefits and are deficient in people who are depressed. Studies reviewed show considerable evidence supports that gut microbiota influence the occurrence of depression.


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