Once we are vaccinated or get infected by a virus, the antibodies we create are very powerful. The mechanism in which a virus spreads within our bodies is entering the cells and then using ribosomes of the cells to replicate its self. When produced enough, it bursts out and finds another new cell to infect. The process multiplies fast till our immune system develops antibodies to stops this multiplication. Vaccinated individuals already have antibodies so the battle starts early and ends early.
Supercell – an escape mechanism for virus
Antibodies attack the virus once it comes out to look for a new cell to infect. But what if they do not have to come out to spread? Scientists have observed that highly infectious coronavirus can change human cells’ gene response causing them to fuse with two or more neighboring cells. This newly formed big cell is called a supercell.
These supercells which are also known as syncytia have multiple nuclei and abundant ribosomes and cytoplasm. Hence virus replicates more efficiently. Also, the virus fuses into more cells without moving out. It is difficult to eliminate a virus from the fused supercell.
Evolution of our immune system
T-cells are white blood cells that have a memory following vaccination or infection. They can recognize and kill infected cells. The evolution of our immune system has ensured that it does not just look for the free-floating virus but also cells membrane. Hence the memory enables T-cells to act rapidly if the same virus attacks.
Vaccine or a recent infection produces both antibodies and virus-specific T-cells. Antibodies bind to the virus before they enter a cell. T-cells response is to reduce the fertile cell host for virus replication. This expedites the process of elimination of the virus.
Dysfunctional Immune system
For any reason, if the immune response is suppressed or modified, cell-to-cell transmission is dominant. Also, the chances of supercell formation are more leading to faster spread of the virus. In such cases the sickness period is prolonged. Besides endangering our own body, there are chances of the virus mutating so that it can adapt to our bodies lifecycle. This leads to the emergence of variants of a virus. Thus a host body suffers for a longer period and also can face death. However, the process allows the virus to spend a longer time in the host’ body and survive. It undergoes various treatments and tries to build resistance against them. This gives birth to viruses that are more contagious and less responsive to our treatment.
How to win the battle
We need more people to get vaccinated and effective anti-viral drugs. Thus we can eradicate viruses and prevent mutation too. Broad resistance to the virus can be achieved by vaccination only if we work together. By doing so we not only prevent ourselves but also do not allow the virus to jump over and over again and create variants. As time passes by, we will have better vaccines, more effective to stop the spread. Hence people should not hesitate to get vaccinated. Also, it is important to keep your immune system in shape so that virus spends less time inside your cell. Your eating good food, regular exercise, maintaining the correct weight, and ensuring healthy habits can benefit the complete human race