AMPHOTERICIN B-BIGGEST HOPE AGAINST BLACK FUNGUS

👁 522
Amphotericin B Drug

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medicine that is used to treat severe fungal infections for many years. It is a drug that is best suited to treat ‘Mucormycosis’ or more commonly called the ‘Black fungus’ (www.h2fcare.com/2021/05/11/black-fungus-and-covid-19/). It has been in use worldwide since 1958. This antifungal drug is the safest option for treating the deadly black fungus.

Amphotericin B is a wide spectrum anti-fungal drug. It is administered via an injection into the human vein. It is the first line and most effective treatment for ‘Mucormycosis’. The working principle of the drug is independent of the state of the body’s immune system. Hence it is effective even in immunocompromised patients.

While acting on the fungal cells the Amphotericin B compromises itself to generate a favorable body response. Hence it does not damage the host that is the cells of the patients. The patient does not develop any resistance to the drug for future usage if required. 

DRUG MECHANISM

Ergosterol is a sterol component that is present in the cell membranes of the fungus. Amphotericin B binds with the ergosterol and forms pores in the membrane. This causes leakage of some monovalent ions such as Hydrogen(H+), Chlorine (Cl-), Sodium (Na+) and Potassium(K+) which results in the death of the fungal cells. Amphotericin B also produces oxidative stress inside the fungal cells. Oxidative stress is when there is an imbalance between the production and accumulation of oxygen reactive species (ROS) in cells. Accumulation of these oxygen reactive species (ROS)such as hydroxyl(OH-), oxygen(O-), peroxides (H2O2-) etc, has a damaging effect on the various components of the fungal cell thus causing its death.

SIDE EFFECTS

The drug does cause a few side effects such as high fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, headache and generalized weakness as soon as it is administered intravenously. However, these reactions are not a matter of any concern. This is since the medicine induces the release of histamines. This compound initiates local immune responses. Thus, it imitates the body’s immune response to fight infection.

FINAL CALL

During treatment of Covid-19, patients undergo prolonged steroid treatment and use broad-spectrum antibiotics. These immunomodulators make our body vulnerable to secondary threats such as fungal infection. This concern is more so in case the patient has comorbid diseases (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html) or is undergoing immunosuppression treatment such as cancer, transplant etc. 

Fortunately, Amphotericin B acts wonderfully in all cases irrespective of the patient’s own immune system’s capability and state. This is the reason that the Government of India has ordered mass production of the drug and has permitted many pharmaceutical companies by giving production licenses. 

Although the drug is a sure shot and a simple solution to a life-threatening fungal infection, the drug must be only consumed if prescribed by a doctor. The doctor treating Covid-19 understands the situation of the patient keeping in view the steroids and antibiotics given. Hence one must avoid taking medicine from prescriptions under circulation in social media. 

Leave a Reply

Back to top

Sign up For Our Newsletter

X